# Technology

# zkRollup architecture

zkSync is an L2 protocol based on the ZK rollup architecture. ZK rollup is a flavour of a larger "rollup" family. For more background, we recommend Vitalik Buterin's 2021 guide to rollups.

All funds are held by a smart contract on the mainchain, while computation and storage are performed off-chain. In a nutshell, it works as follows:

  1. Users sign transactions and submit them to validators.
  2. Validators roll up thousands of transactions together in a single block and submit a cryptographic commitment (the root hash) of the new state to the smart contract on mainnet along with a cryptographic proof (a SNARK) that this new state is indeed the result of the application of some correct transactions to the old state.
  3. Additionally to the proof, the state ∆ (a small amount of data for every transaction) is published over the mainchain network as cheap calldata. This enables anyone to reconstruct the state at any moment.
  4. The proof and the state ∆ are verified by the smart contract, thus verifying both the validity of all the transactions included in the block and block data availability.

The SNARK verification is much cheaper than verifying every transaction individually, and storing the state off-chain is significantly cheaper than storing it in EVM. Hence enabling a huge boost of scalability (~100-200x mainnet capacity) and tx cost savings.

zkRollup architecture provides the following guarantees:

  • Validators can never corrupt the state or steal funds (unlike Sidechains).
  • Users can always retrieve the funds from the zkRollup even if validator(s) stop cooperating, because the data is available (unlike Plasma).
  • Neither users nor a single trusted third party needs to be online to monitor zkRollup blocks in order to prevent fraud (unlike fraud-proof systems, such as payment channels or Optimistic Rollups).

In other words, zkRollup strictly inherits the security guarantees of the underlying L1.

Here are some links to explore the topic of zkRollups:

# Maximum throughput

zkSync node infrastructure has been benchmarked to support >8000 TPS (transactions per second). Currently, actual transaction throughput has an upper bound of 300 TPS due to the current limitations of the PLONK CRS. Yet, this number by far exceeds the average transaction load on Paypal and should be sufficient for a while. More importantly, PLONK is one of the few proof systems that allow efficient universal recursion (without such difficulties as the need for cycles of elliptic curves)! We already implemented, verified, and benchmarked it. Recursion allows us to easily implement uncapped blocks in zkSync v1.1 without reimplementing the already-audited basic block circuit. Moreover, it is the key to the future implementation of privacy and smart contracts. We will provide more details later in a separate post.

# Transaction finality

Transactions in zkSync reach the finality of Ethereum once the SNARK proof of zkSync block is generated and accepted by the smart contract. The proof time generation is expected to be ~10 min, i.e. after 10 minutes, the zkSync transaction is as final as any L1 Ethereum tx included in the same Ethereum block as the transaction with the proof.

In contrast, fraud-based scaling solutions (e.g. optimistic rollup) require at least 2 weeks of lockout period to operate more or less securely, which results in 2 weeks objective* tx finality time.

It should be added that Matter Labs and other companies in the ZKP space are constantly working on improving the prover efficiency, which will result in lower finality times (potentially down to under 1 min).

* Subjective finality time can be shorter for optimistic rollup users who validate every tx themselves, but this would defeat the purpose of optimistic rollup as a scaling solution.

# Instant confirmations

Even though time to finality is ~10 min, it should not affect the usability of the network. Transactions submitted to zkSync by users are instantly confirmed, instantly displayed to the receiving party in the UI and API (although they are marked as unconfirmed), and the transferred assets can immediately be used to make further transfers (which might even end up in the same zkSync block).

At the moment, instant confirmations are pure promise on the side of zkSync operators to include the transaction in the next block. Users who do not trust the operator should await full finality before considering the assets as received.

In the future, a security bond will be added to zkSync that will provide instant economic finality guarantees. It will work as follows.

Validators elected to participate in zkSync block production will have to post a significant security bond to the zkSync smart contract on the mainnet. A consensus run by the validators provides a subsecond confirmation to the user that their transaction will be included in the next zkSync block, signed by a supermajority of ⅔ of the consensus participants (weighted by stake).

If a new zkSync block is produced and submitted to the mainchain, it cannot be reverted. However, if it doesn’t contain the promised transaction, the security bond of the intersection of the signers of the original receipt and the signers of the new blocks will be slashed. This intersection is guaranteed to have more than ⅓ of the stake. This guarantees that at least ⅓ of the security bond can be slashed and that only malicious validators will be punished.

A portion of the slashed funds will be used to compensate the tx recipient. The rest will be burned.

# Congested mainnet

Periodically, extraordinary events lead to very high levels of congestion on the Ethereum network (notable examples are Cryptokitties crisis or the Shanghai DOS attack). During such peak load times, gas prices skyrocket and it might become prohibitively expensive to move crypto assets, rendering some services inoperative or preventing arbitrage opportunities.

Moreover, some systems can generally fail in extreme circumstances, leading to cascading failures (the recent DeFi Black Thursday is an excellent example). This is especially worrisome for fraud-proof-based scaling solutions (payment channels, optimistic rollups), because there is a risk that their automated security bots won't be able to get their fraud-proof transactions mined in case of an attack during high-congestion, thus jeopardizing the security of all assets under the control of such systems. What makes the problem for these systems worse, you can never know until the situation occurs (just like it happened for Maker's liquidation bot).

In contrast, zkSync is positioned exceptionally well to thrive in a high-congestion environment.

First and foremost, a congested network (just like as a targeted DOS attack) can never create any threat to assets in zkSync. Any movement of funds within or out of zkSync requires a zero-knowledge proof of validity, and it's simply unaffected by censorship L1 in any way.

Second, the normal operation of zkSync is also unlikely to be disrupted, even for smaller amounts. The operator's node is configured to automatically increase the gas price to over-the-average level to get zkSync blocks mined with high priority. Since the on-chain costs per transaction are ~1/100th of the cost of corresponding plain transaction on the L1, zkSync users will be least affected.